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Professor Nicholas Mackintosh

Biography:

Nicholas John Mackintosh is Professor Emeritus in the Department of Experimental Psychology at the University of Cambridge and Fellow of the Royal Society since 1987. He has a very long and distinguished career as a scientist, having received the Biological Medal and the President's Award from the British Psychological Society in 1984 and 1986 respectively.

Between 1981 and 2002 he was Head of the Department of Experimental Psychology and a Fellow of King's College at the University of Cambridge. He has travelled widely, having been Visiting professor at the Universities of Pennsylvania, California (at Berkeley), Hawaii, New South Wales and Yale.

Nick has authored many seminal books that have had, and continue to have, an impact on the way people think about issues such as intelligence and animal learning. These have included 'The Psychology of Animal Learning' (1974), 'Cyril Burt: Fraud or Framed' (1995), and  'IQ and Human Intelligence' (1998),

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Key Publications

Books

Mackintosh, N.J. & Honig, W.K. (Eds.) (1969).  Fundamental issues in associative learning.  Halifax: Dalhousie University Press.

Sutherland, N.S. & Mackintosh, N.J. (1971).  Mechanisms of animal discrimination learning.  New York: Academic Press.

Mackintosh, N.J. (1974).  The psychology of animal learning.  London: Academic Press.

Mackintosh, N.J. (1983).  Conditioning and associative learning.  Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Mackintosh, N.J. (Ed.) (1994).  Handbook of Perception and Cognition, vol. 9: Animal Learning and Cognition.  San Diego, CA.: Academic Press. 

Mackintosh, N.J. (Ed.) (1995).  Cyril Burt: Fraud or Framed?  Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Mackintosh, N.J. (1998).  IQ and Human Intelligence.  Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Journal articles

Mackintosh, N.J. (1962).  The effects of overtraining on a reversal and a nonreversal shift.  Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 555-559.

Mackintosh, N.J. (1963).  The effect of irrelevant cues on reversal learning in the rat.  British Journal of Psychology, 54, 127-134.

Sutherland N.S., Mackintosh, N.J. & Mackintosh, J. (1963).  Simultaneous discrimination training inOctopus and transfer of discrimination along a continuum.  Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 56, 150-156.

Mackintosh, N.J. (1963).  Extinction of a discrimination habit as a function of overtraining.  Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 56, 842-847.

Mackintosh, N.J. (1963).  Direct transfer from a horizontal vertical discrimination to a brightness discrimination in the rat.  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 15, 212-213.

Mackintosh, N.J. & Mackintosh, J. (1963).  Reversal learning in Octopus vulgaris Lamarck with and without irrelevant cues.  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 15, 236-242.

Sutherland, N.S., Mackintosh, J. & Mackintosh, N.J. (1963).  The visual discrimination of reduplicated patterns by Octopus.  Animal Behaviour, 11, 106-110.

Mackintosh, N.J., Mackintosh, J. & Sutherland, N.S. (1963).  The relative importance of horizontal and vertical extents in shape discrimination by Octopus.  Animal Behaviour, 11, 355-358.

Mackintosh, N.J. (1964).  Overtraining and transfer within and between dimensions in the rat. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 16, 250-256.

Mackintosh, N.J. & Mackintosh, J. (1964).  Performance of Octopus over a series of reversals of simultaneous discrimination.  Animal Behaviour, 12, 321-324.

Mackintosh, N.J. & Mackintosh, J. (1964).  The effect of overtraining on a nonreversal shift in Octopus.  Journal of Genetic Psychology, 106, 373-377.

Mackintosh, N.J. (1965).  The effect of attention on the slope of generalization gradients.  British Journal of Psychology, 56, 87-93.

Mackintosh, N.J. (1965).  Overtraining, transfer to proprioceptive control and position reversal. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 17, 26-36.

Mackintosh, N.J. (1965).  Incidental cue learning in rats.  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 17, 292-300.

Mackintosh, N.J. (1965).  Overtraining, reversal, and extinction in rats and chicks.  Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 59, 31-36.

Mackintosh, N.J. (1965).  Selective attention in animal discrimination learning.  Psychological Bulletin, 64, 124-50.

Mackintosh, N.J. & olgate, V. (1965).  Overtraining and the extinction of a discrimination in OctopusJournal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 60, 260-262.

Sutherland, N.S., Mackintosh, N.J. & Wolfe, J.B. (1965).  Extinction as a function of the order of partial and consistent reinforcement.  Journal of Experimental Psychology, 69, 56-59.

Sutherland, N.S., Mackintosh, N.J. & Mackintosh, J. (1965).  Shape and size discrimination inOctopus: The effects of pretraining along different dimensions.  Journal of Genetic Psychology, 106, 1-10.

Mackintosh, N.J. (1965).  Transposition after 'single-stimulus' training.  American Journal of Psychology, 78, 116-119.

Mackintosh, N.J. (1965).  Discrimination learning in the Octopus Animal Behaviour, Supplement, 1, 129-134.

Mackintosh, N.J., Mackintosh, J., Safriel-Journe, O. & Sutherland, N.S. (1966).  Overtraining, reversal and extinction in the goldfish.  Animal Behaviour, 14, 314-318.

Mackintosh, N.J. & Holgate, V. (1967).  Effects of several pretraining procedures on brightness probability learning.  Perceptual and Motor Skills, 25, 629-637.

Mackintosh, N.J. & Holgate, V. (1968).  Effects of inconsistent reinforcement on reversal and nonreversal shifts.  Journal of Experimental Psychology, 76, 154-159

Mackintosh, N.J., McGonigle, B., Holgate, V. & Vanderver, V. (1968).  Factors underlying improvement in serial reversal learning.  Canadian Journal of Psychology, 22, 85-95.

Mackintosh, N.J. & Holgate, V. (1969).  Serial reversal training and nonreversal shift learning.  Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 67, 89-93.

Mackintosh, N.J. (1969).  Further analysis of the overtraining reversal effect. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Monograph, 67, Part 2, 1-18.

Mackintosh, N.J. & Little, L. (1969).  Intradimensional and extradimensional shift learning by pigeons. Psychonomic Science, 14, 5-6.

Mackintosh, N.J. & Little, L. (1969).  Selective attention and response strategies as factors in serial reversal learning.  Canadian Journal of Psychology, 23, 335-346.

Over, R. & Mackintosh, N.J. (1969).  Cross-modal transfer of intensity discrimination by rats.  Nature, 224, 918-919.

Mackintosh, N.J. & Little, L. (1970).  Effects of different patterns of reinforcement on performance under massed or spaced extinction.  Psychonomic Science, 20, 1-2.

Turner, C. & Mackintosh, N.J. (1970).  Continuity theory revisited: Comments on Wolford and Bower. Psychological Review, 77, 577-580.

Mackintosh, N.J. & Honig, W.K. (1970).  Blocking and enhancement of stimulus control in pigeons. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 73, 78-85.

Mackintosh, N.J. (1970).  Distribution of trials and the partial reinforcement effect in the rat.  Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 73, 341-348.

Miles, C.G., Mackintosh, N.J. & Westbrook, R.F. (1970).  Redistributing control between the elements of a compound stimulus.  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 22, 478-483.

Mackintosh, N.J. & Little, L. (1970).  An analysis of transfer along a continuum.  Canadian Journal of Psychology, 24, 363-369.

Mackintosh, N.J. & Cauty, A. (1971).  Spatial reversal learning in rats, pigeons and goldfish. Psychonomic Science, 22 281-282.

Mackintosh, N.J., Lord., J. & Little, L. (1971).  Visual and spatial probability learning in pigeons and goldfish.  Psychonomic Science, 24, 221-223.

Mackintosh, N.J. (1971).  An analysis of overshadowing and blocking.  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 23, 118-125.

Mackintosh, N.J. & Turner, C. (1971).  Blocking as a function of novelty of CS and predictability of UCS.  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 23, 359-366.

Likely, D., Little, L. & Mackintosh, N.J. (1971).  Extinction as a function of magnitude and percentage of food or sucrose reward.  Canadian Journal of Psychology, 25, 130-137.

Mackintosh, N.J. (1971).  Reward and aftereffects of reward in the learning of goldfish.  Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 76, 225-232.

Turner, C. & Mackintosh, N.J. (1972).  Stimulus selection and irrelevant stimuli in discrimination learning by pigeons.  Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 78, 1-9.

Mackintosh, N.J., Little, L. & Lord, J. (1972).  Some determinants of behavioral contrast in pigeons and rats.  Learning and Motivation, 3, 143-161.

Gray, V.A. & Mackintosh, N.J. (1973).  Control by an irrelevant stimulus in discrete-trial discrimination learning by pigeons.  Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1, 193-195.

Mackintosh, N.J. & Lord, J. (1973).  Simultaneous and successive contrast with delay of reward. Animal Learning and Behavior, 1, 283-286.

St. Claire-Smith, R. & Mackintosh, N.J. (1974).  Complete suppression to a compound CS does not block further conditioning to each element.  Canadian Journal of Psychology, 28, 92-101.

Mackintosh, N.J. (1974).  A search for contrast effects in discrete-trial discrimination learning by pigeons.  Learning and Motivation, 5, 311-327.

Mackintosh, N.J. (1975).  Critical Notice of L.J. Kamin’s Science and Politics of IQ.   Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 27, 672-86.

Mackintosh, N.J. (1975).  A theory of attention: variations in the associability of stimuli with reinforcement.  Psychological Review, 82, 276-298.

Mackintosh, N.J. (1975).  Blocking of conditioned suppression: role of the first compound trial. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behaviour Processes, 1, 335-345.

Mackintosh, N.J. (1976). Overshadowing and stimulus intensity.  Animal Learning and Behaviour, 4, 186-192.

Dickinson, A., Hall, G. & Mackintosh, N.J. (1976).  Surprise and the attenuation of blocking.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 2, 313-322.

Mackintosh, N.J., Bygrave, D.J. & Picton, B.M.B. (1977).  Locus of the effect of a surprising reinforcer in the attenuation of blocking.  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 29, 327-336.

Hall, G., Mackintosh, N.J., Goodall, G. & Martello, M. (1977).  Loss of control by a less valid or by a less salient stimulus compounded with a better predictor of reinforcement.  Learning and Motivation, 8, 145-158.

Baker, A.G. & Mackintosh, N.J. (1977).  Excitatory and inhibitory conditioning following uncorrelated presentations of CS and US.  Animal Learning and Behavior, 5, 315-319.

Mackintosh, N.J. (1978).  Limits on reinterpreting instrumental conditioning in terms of classical conditioning.  The Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 1, 67.

Leyland, C.M. & Mackintosh, N.J. (1978).  Blocking of first- and second-order autoshaping in pigeons. Animal Learning and Behavior, 6, 391-394.

Dickinson, A. & Mackintosh, N.J. (1978).  Classical conditioning in animals.  Annual Review of Psychology, 29, 587-612.

Dickinson, A. & Mackintosh, N.J. (1979).  Reinforcer specificity in the enhancement of conditioning by posttrial surprise.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 5, 162-177.

Mackintosh, N.J. & Reese, B. (1979).  One-trial overshadowing.  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 31, 519-526.

Baker, A.G. & Mackintosh, N.J. (1979).  Pre-exposure to the CS alone, US alone, or CS and US uncorrelated: latent inhibition, blocking by context or learned irrelevance?  Learning and Motivation, 10, 278-294.

Mackintosh, N.J., Dickinson, A. & Cotton, M.M. (1980).  Surprise and blocking: effects of the number of compound trials.  Animal Learning and Behavior, 8, 387-391.

Holman, J.G. & Mackintosh, N.J. (1981).  The control of appetitive instrumental responding does not depend on classical conditioning of the discriminative stimuli.  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 33B, 21-31.

Garrud, P., Goodall, G. & Mackintosh, N.J. (1981).  Overshadowing of a stimulus-reinforcer association by an instrumental response.  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 33B, 123-135.

Mackintosh, N.J. (1981).  A new measure of intelligence?  Nature, 289, 529-530.

Cotton, M.M., Goodall, G. & Mackintosh, N.J. (1982).  Inhibitory conditioning resulting from a reduction in the magnitude of reinforcement.  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 34B, 163-180.

Dickinson, A., Nicholas, D.J. & Mackintosh, N.J. (1983).  A re-examination of one-trial blocking in conditioned suppression.  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 35B, 67-79.

Lovibond, P., Preston, G.C. & Mackintosh, N.J. (1984).  Contextual control of conditioning and latent inhibition.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 10, 360-375.

Garrud, P., Rawlins, J.N.P., Mackintosh, N.J. Goodall, G., Cotton, M.M. & Feldon, J. (1984).  Successful overshadowing and blocking in hippocampectomized rats.  Behavioural Brain Research, 12, 39-53.

Mackintosh, N.J., Wilson, B. & Boakes, R.A. (1985).  Differences in mechanisms of intelligence among vertebrates.  Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London, 308B, 53-66.

Diez-Chanizo, V., Sterio, D. & Mackintosh, N.J. (1985).  Blocking and overshadowing between intra-maze and extra-maze cues: a test of the independence of locale and guidance learning.  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 37B, 235-253.

Wilson, B., Boakes, R.A. & Mackintosh, N.J. (1985).  Matching and oddity learning in pigeons: transfer effects and the absence of relational learning.  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 37B, 295-312.

Wilson, B., Boakes, R.A. & Mackintosh, N.J. (1985).  Transfer of relational rules in matching and oddity learning by pigeons and corvids.  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 37B, 313-332.

Mackintosh, N.J. (1986).  The biology of intelligence?  British Journal of Psychology, 77, 1-18.

Durlach, P. & Mackintosh, N.J. (1986).  Transfer of serial reversal learning in the pigeon.  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 38B, 81-95.

Preston, G.C., Dickinson, A. & Mackintosh, N.J. (1986).  Contextual conditional discriminations. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 38B, 217-237.

Mackintosh, N.J. (1986).  Tolman and modern conditioning theory.  British Journal of Psychology, 77, 517-523.

Goodall, G. & Mackintosh, N.J. (1987).  Analysis of the Pavlovian properties of signals for punishment.  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 39B, 1-21.

Mackintosh, N.J. (1987).  Neurobiology, psychology and habituation.  Behaviour Research & Therapy, 25(2), 81-97.

Kaye, H., Preston, G.C., Szabo, L., Druiff, H. and Mackintosh, N.J. (1987).  Context specificity of conditioning and latent inhibition: evidence for a dissociation of latent inhibition and associative interference.  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 39B, 127-145.

Neuenschwander, N., Fabrigoule, C. & Mackintosh, N.J. (1987).  Fear of the warning signal during overtraining of avoidance.  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 39B, 23-33.

Mackintosh, N.J. (1988).  Comparator theories of habituation: A reply. Biological Psychology, 27, 65-67.

Kaye, H., Gambini, B. & Mackintosh, N.J. (1988).  A dissociation between one-trial overshadowing and the effect of a distractor on habituation.  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 40B, 31-47.

Kaye, H., Swietalski, N. & Mackintosh, N.J. (1988).  Distractor effects on latent inhibition are a consequence of generalization decrement.  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 40B, 151-161.

Kaye, H., Swietalski, N. & Mackintosh, N.J. (1988).  Habituation as a function of similarity and temporal location of target and distractor stimuli.  Animal Learning & Behavior, 16, 93-99.

Mackintosh, N.J. (1988).  Approaches to the study of animal intelligence.  British Journal of Psychology, 79, 509-526.

Chamizo, V.D. & Mackintosh, N.J. (1989).  Latent learning and latent inhibition in maze discriminations.  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 41B, 21-31.

Kaye, H, Mackintosh, N.J., Rothschild, M., & Moore, B.P. (1989).  Odour of pyrazine potentiates an association between environmental cues and unpalatable taste.  Animal Behaviour, 37, 563-568.

Kaye, H. and Mackintosh, N.J. (1990).  A change of context can enhance performance of an aversive but not of an appetitive conditioned response.  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 42B, 113-134.

Todd, I.A. & Mackintosh, N.J. (1990).  Evidence for perceptual learning in pigeons' recognition memory for pictures.  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 42B, 385-400.

Trobalon, J.B., Sansa, J., Chamizo, V.D. & Mackintosh, N.J. (1991).  Perceptual learning in maze discriminations.  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 43B, 389-402.

Mackintosh, N.J., Kaye, H. & Bennett, C.H. (1991).  Perceptual learning in flavour aversion conditioning.  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 43B, 297-322.

Trobalon, J.B., Chamizo, V.D. & Mackintosh, N.J. (1992).  Role of context in perceptual learning in maze discriminations.  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 44B, 57-73.

March, J., Chamizo, V.D. & Mackintosh, N.J. (1992).  Reciprocal overshadowing between intra-maze and extra-maze cues.  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 45B, 49-63.

West, A.M., Mackintosh, N.J. & Mascie-Taylor, C.G.N. (1992).  Cognitive and educational attainment in different ethnic groups.  Journal of Biosocial Science, 24, 539-554.

Rodrigo, T., Chamizo, V-D, McLaren, I.P.L., & Mackintosh, N.J. (1994).  Effects of pre-exposure to the same or different pattern of extra-maze cues on subsequent extra-maze discrimination.  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 47B, 15-26.

Bennett, C.H., Wills, S.J., Wells, J.O. & Mackintosh, N.J. (1994).  Reduced generalization following preexposure: latent inhibition of common elements or a difference in familiarity?  Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 20, 232-239.

McLaren, I.P.L., Bennett, C.H., Plaisted, K.C., Aitken, M.R.F. & Mackintosh, N.J. (1994).  Latent inhibition, context specificity, and context familiarity.  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 47B, 387-400.

McLaren, I.P.L., Bennett, C.H., Guttman-Nahir, T. Kim, K & Mackintosh, N.J. (1995).  Prototype effects and peak shift in categorization.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition, 21, 662-673.

Bennett, C.H., Maldonado, A. & Mackintosh, N.J. (1995).  Learned irrelevance is not the sum of exposure to CS and to US.  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 48B, 117-128.

Plaisted, K.C., & Mackintosh, N.J. (1995).  Visual search for cryptic stimuli in pigeons: implications for the search image and search rate hypothesis.  Animal Behaviour, 50, 1219-1232.

Espinet, A., Iraola, J.A., Bennett, C.H. & Mackintosh, N.J. (1995).  Inhibitory associations between neutral stimuli in flavor aversion conditioning.  Animal Learning & Behaviour, 23, 361-368.

Mackintosh, N.J. (1995).  Categorization by people and pigeons.  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 48B, 193-214.

Mackintosh, N.J. (1995).  Insight into Intelligence.  Nature, 377, No. 6550, 581-582.

Aitken, M.R.F., Bennett, C.H., McLaren, I.P.L., & Mackintosh, N.J. (1996).  Perceptual differentiation during categorization learning by pigeons.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 22, 43-50.

Bennett, C.H., Tremain, M., & Mackintosh, N.J. (1996).  Facilitation and retardation of flavour aversion conditioning following prior exposure to the CS.  The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 49B,  220-230.

Sansa, J., Chamizo, V.D. & Mackintosh, N.J. (1996).  Apprendizaje perceptivo en discriminaciones espaciales.  Psicologia, 17, 279-295.

Mackintosh, N.J. (1996).  Sex differences and IQ.  Journal of Biosocial Science, 28, 559-571.

Plaisted, K. & Mackintosh, N.J. (1997).  Simple theories can explain complex behaviour: The phenomenon of search images.  Actes des Colloques de la S.F.E.C.A. Compte-rendu du 28ème colloque annuel.  Plasticité du Comportement Animal; Origine et Expression, pp. 43-55.

Rodrigo, T., Chamizo, V.D., McLaren, I.P.L., & Mackintosh, N.J. (1997).  Blocking in the spatial domain.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 23, 110-118.

Mackintosh, N.J. (1997).  Has the wheel turned full circle?  Fifty years of learning theory, 1946-1996. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 50A, 879-898.

Wills, S.J., & Mackintosh, N.J. (1998).  Peak shift on an artificial dimension.  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 51B, 1-31.

Mackintosh, N.J. (1998).  Sex differences in IQ: A reply to Lynn.  Journal of  Biosocial Sciences, 30, 533-539.

Dwyer, D.M., Mackintosh, N.J. & Boakes, R.A. (1998).  Simultaneous activation of the representation of absent cues result in the strengthening of an excitatory association between them.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 24, 163-171.

Sanchez-Moreno, J., Rodrigo, T., Chamizo, V.D. & Mackintosh, N.J. (1999).  Overshadowing in the spatial domain.  Animal Learning and Behaviour, U27U, 391-398.

Prados, J., Chamizo, V.D. & Mackintosh, N.J. (1999).  Latent inhibition and perceptual learning in a swimming pool navigation task.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 25, 37-44.

Wills, S.J. & Mackintosh, N.J. (1999).  Relational learning in pigeons?   Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 52B, 31-52.

Bennett, C.H. & Mackintosh, N.J. (1999).  Comparison and contrast as a mechanism of perceptual learning?  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 52B, 253-272.

Bennett, C.H., Scahill, V.L., Griffiths, D.P., & Mackintosh, N.J. (1999).  The role of inhibitory associations in perceptual learning.  Animal Learning & Behavior, 27, 333-345.

Bennett, C.H., Wills, S.J., Oakeshott, S.M., & Mackintosh, N.J. (2000).  Is the context specificity of latent inhibition a sufficient explanation of learned irrelevance?  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 53B, 239-253.

McLaren, I.P.L. & Mackintosh, N.J. (2000).  Associative learning and elemental representations.  I: A theory and its application to latent inhibition and perceptual learning.  Animal Learning & Behavior, 26, 211-246.

Dwyer, D., Bennett, C.H. & Mackintosh, N.J. (2001). Evidence for inhibitory associations between the unique elements of two compound flavours Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 54B, 97-107.

Mackintosh, N.J. & Bennett, E.S. (2002).  IT, IQ, and perceptual speed. Personality and Individual Differences, 32, 685-693.

Mackintosh, N.J. (2002).  Do not ask whether they have a cognitive map, but how they find their way about. Psicologia, 23, 165-185.

McLaren, I.P.L. & Mackintosh, N.J. (2002).  Associative learning and elemental representation II: Generalization and Discrimination.  Animal Learning and Behavior, 30, 177-200.

Dwyer, D.M. & Mackintosh, N.J. (2002).  Alternating exposure to two compound flavors creates inhibitory associations between their unique features.  Animal Learning & Behavior, 30, 201-207.

Trobalon, J.B., Miguelez, D., McLaren, I.P.L. & Mackintosh, N.J. (2003). Intradimensional and extradimensional shifts in spatial learning.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 29, 143-152.

Mackintosh, N.J. & Bennett, E.S. (2003). The fractionation of working memory maps onto different components of intelligence. Intelligence, 31, 519-531.

Mackintosh, N.J. (2003). Pavlov and associationism. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 6, 177-184.

Scahill, V.L. & Mackintosh, N.J. (2004). The easy to hard effect and perceptual learning in flavor aversion conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 30, 96-103.

Mackintosh, N.J. & Bennett, E.S. (2005). What do Raven’s Matrices measure? An analysis in terms of sex differences. Intelligence, 33, 663-674.

Chamizo, V.D., Manteiga, R.D., Rodrigo, T. & Mackintosh, N.J. (2006). Competition between landmarks in spatial learning: The role of proximity to the goal, Behavioural Processes, 71, 59-65.

Chamizo, V.D., Rodrigo, T. & Mackintosh, N.J. (2006). Spatial integration with rats. Learning and Behavior, 34, 348-354.

Gebauer, G.F. & Mackintosh, N.J. (2007). Psychometric intelligence dissociates implicit and explicit learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, (in press).

Mackintosh, N.J. (2007). Reply to Colom and Abad (2006), Intelligence, (in press).

Plaisted, K., Bell, S. & Mackintosh, N.J. (2007). The role of mathematical skill in sex differences on items of the Raven’s Progressive Matrices. Personality and Individual Differences, (in press).

Chapters in books

Mackintosh, N.J. (1969).  Comparative psychology of serial reversal and probability learning: rats, birds and fish.  In R. Gilbert & N.S. Sutherland (Eds.)  Animal discrimination learning.  London: Academic Press, pp. 137-162.

Bitterman, M.E. & Mackintosh, N.J. (1969).  Habit-reversal and probability learning: Rats, birds, and fish.  Part 1.  In R.M. Gilbert and N.S. Sutherland (Eds.), Animal discrimination learning.  London: Academic Press, pp. 163-185.

Mackintosh, N.J. (1970).  Attention and probability learning.  In D.I. Mostofsky (Ed.)  Attention: Contemporary theory and analysis.  New York:  Appleton-Century-Crofts, pp. 173-191.

Mackintosh, N.J. (1973).  Stimulus selection: Learning to ignore stimuli that predict no change in reinforcement.  In R.A. Hinde & J.S. Hinde (Eds.)  Constraints on learning.  London: Academic Press, pp. 75-96.

Mackintosh, N.J. (1975).  From classical conditioning to discrimination learning.  In W.K. Estes (Ed.) Handbook of learning and cognitive processes, Vol. 1.  Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum Associates, pp. 151-189.

Mackintosh, N.J. (1977).  Conditioning as the perception of causal relations.  In R. Butts & J. Hintikka (Eds.)  Logic, methodology and philosophy of science.  Dordrecht: D. Reidel Publishing Co., pp. 241-250.    

Mackintosh, N.J. (1977).  Stimulus control: Attentional Factors.  In W.K. Honig & J.E.R. Staddon (Eds.)  Handbook of operant behavior.  Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, pp. 481-513.

Mackintosh, N.J. (1977).  Cognitive learning theories.  In H. Zeier (Ed.)  Psychology of the 20th Century: Pavlov and his followers.  Zurich: Kindler Verlag, pp. 161-188.

Mackintosh, N.J. (1978).  Cognitive or associative theories of conditioning: implications of an analysis of blocking.  In H. Fowler, W.K. Honig & S.H. Hulse (Eds.)  Cognitive aspects of animal behavior.  Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum Associates, pp. 155-175.

Dickinson, A. & Mackintosh, N.J. (1978).  Classical conditioning in animals.  Annual Review of Psychology, Vol. 29.  Palo Alto: Annual Reviews Inc., pp. 587-612.

Mackintosh, N.J. (1978).  Conditioning.  In B.M. Foss (Ed.)  Psychology Survey No. 1.  London: Allen & Unwin, pp. 43-57.

Mackintosh, N.J. & Dickinson, A. (1979).  Instrumental (type II) conditioning. In A. Dickinson & R.A. Boakes (Eds.)  Mechanisms of learning and motivation.  Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum Associates, pp. 143-169.

Mackintosh, N.J. (1981).  Learning.  In D.J. McFarland (Ed.)  Oxford Companion to animal behaviour.  Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 336-346.

Mackintosh, N.J. (1983).  General principles of learning.  In T. Halliday & P.J.B. Slater (Eds.)  Animal behaviour, Vol. 3: Genes, development and learning.  Oxford: Blackwells, pp. 149-177.

Mackintosh, N.J. & Cotton, M.M. (1985).  Conditioned inhibition from reinforcement reduction.  In R.R. Miller & N.E. Spear (Eds.)  Conditioned inhibition.  Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum Associates, pp. 89-111.

Mackintosh, N.J. & MASCIE-TAYLOR, C.G.N. (1985).  The IQ Question.  In: Report of a Committee of Inquiry into the Education of Children from Ethnic Minorities.  London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, pp. 126-163.

Mackintosh, N.J. (1985).  Contextual specificity or state dependency of human and animal learning.  In L-G. Nilsson & T. Archer (Eds.) Perspectives on Animal Learning and Human Memory.  Hillsdale, N.J.:  Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 223-242.

Mackintosh, N.J. (1985).  Varieties of conditioning.  In N.M. Weinberger, J.L. McGaugh & G. Lynch (Eds.)  Memory Systems of the Brain: Animal and Human Cognitive Processes.  New York: Guilford Publications, pp. 335-350.

Mackintosh, N.J., Wilson, B. & Boakes, R.A. (1985).  Differences in mechanisms of intelligence among vertebrates.  In L. Weiskrantz (Ed.) Animal Intelligence, pp. 53-66.  Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Mackintosh, N.J. (1985/6).  Animal Learning.  In Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th ed., vol. 22, pp. 870-885.

Mackintosh, N.J. & Mascie-Taylor, C.G.N. (1986).  The IQ question.  In C. Bagley and G.K. Verma (Eds.), Personality, Cognition and Values.  Macmillan: London, pp. 77-131.

Mackintosh, N.J. (1987).  Animal Minds.  In C. Blakemore & S. Greenfield (Eds.), Mindwaves.  Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 111-120.

Mackintosh, N.J., Mascie-Taylor, C.G.N. & West, A.M. (1988).  West Indian and Asian children's educational attainments, 1970-1985.  In: G. Verma & P. Pumphrey (Eds.) Educational attainments.  Lewes: Falmer Press, pp. 87-99.

Mackintosh, N.J. (1988).  Intelligence and Reasoning.  In: T.W. Robbins & P.J. Cooper (Eds.)Psychology for Medicine, Chapter 6.  London: Edward Arnold, pp. 124-154.

McLaren, I.P.L., Kaye, H. and Mackintosh, N.J. (1989).  An associative theory of the representation of stimuli: applications to perceptual learning and latent inhibition.  In  R.G.M. Morris (Ed.) Parallel Distributed Processing: Implications for Psychology and Neurobiology.  Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 102-130.

Mackintosh, N.J. (1990).  Simple conditioning.  In R.G. Lister & H.J. Weingartner (Eds.) Perspectives on cognitive neuroscience.  New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 65-75

Mackintosh, N.J. (1994).  The evolution of intelligence.  In J. Khalfa (Ed.) Intelligence.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 27-48.

Mackintosh, N.J. (1994).  Classical and operant conditioning.  In A.M. Colman (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Psychology.  London: Routledge, pp. 379-396.

McLaren, I.P.L., Green, R. & Mackintosh, N.J. (1994).  Animal learning and the implicit/explicit distinction.  In N.C. Ellis (Ed.) Implicit and explicit learning of languages.   London: Academic Press, pp. 313-332.

McLaren, I.P.L., LeeversS, H.L. & Mackintosh, N.J. (1994).  Recognition, categorisation and perceptual learning.  In C. Umilta & M. Moscovitch (Eds.) Attention and performance XV: Conscious & Nonconscious Information Processing. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press,  pp. 889-909.

Mackintosh, N.J. & Bennett, C.H. (1998).  Perceptual learning in animals and humans.  In M. Sabourin, F.I.M. Craik & M. Robert (Eds.), Advances in Psychological Science: Vol. 2 Biological & Cognitive Aspects.  Psychology Press.

Mackintosh, N.J. (1998).  Conditioning.  Encyclopedia of Cognitive Sciences.  Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Mackintosh, N.J. (1999).  Abstraction and Discrimination.  In C. Heyes, L.Huber (Eds.), Evolution of Cognition.   Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Mackintosh, N.J. (2000).  Conditioning sensitizes a preexisting fear.  In Atkinson, R.L., Atkinson, R.C., Smith, E.E., Bem, D.J., & Nolen-Hochsena, S. (Eds.), Hilgard's Introduction to Psychology, 13th ed., p. 262.  Orlando, FL: Harcourt.